No, it will not. Rear window decals can be used and installed on windows with a rear windshield wiper without risk of damage as long as the wiper is properly maintained.
To install around a windshield wiper, simply cut a slit in the One-Way Vision Film and apply it around the wiper. You can also design your rear window graphic to be shorter than your vehicle's window (so the graphics start above the wiper).
Use the same process when installing a rear window graphic around handles, hinges, etc.